1. Before touching the patient
In order to prevent the patient from being colonized with healthcare-associated microorganisms, hand hygiene must take place before touching the patient or entering the patient zone. The patient zone contains the patient and his/her immediate surroundings, including surfaces touched by the patient (such as the bed rails, infusion tubing) and surfaces frequently touched by staff (such as monitors, knobs and buttons).
Examples: Before shaking hands, helping a patient to move around, clinical examination.